The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) came into force in 1995 as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. TRIPS integrates and builds on the latest versions of primary IP agreements managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Paris Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property and the Bern Convention on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. In addition to the basic intellectual property standards set out in the TRIPS agreement, many nations have committed to bilateral agreements to adopt a higher level of protection. This collection of standards, known as TRIPS or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms.  One of the general objectives of these agreements is that a 2003 agreement relaxed the requirement of the internal market and allows developing countries to export to other countries with national health problems until exported drugs are part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such regulations may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from affecting the markets of industrialized countries. Trips-plus conditions, which impose standards beyond TRIPS, have also been verified.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to introduce competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for promoting protection far beyond the standards prescribed by the TRIPS. The U.S.
free trade agreements with Australia, Morocco and Bahrain have expanded patentability by making patents available for new uses of known products.  The TRIPS agreement authorizes the granting of compulsory licences at the discretion of a country. The terms of trips plus in the U.S. Free Trade Agreement with Australia, Jordan, Singapore and Vietnam have limited the application of mandatory licences to emergencies, remedies for cartels and abuse of dominance, and cases of non-commercial public use.  Agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (Annex 1C of the World Trade Organization agreement of 15 April 1994); See secretariat of the Agreement, the results of the multilateral trade negotiations of the Uruguay Round, texts 365 and following (1994), www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/legal_e.htm#wtoagreement (delivered on 25 November 2003).