Alliance, in international relations, a formal agreement between two or more states for mutual assistance in the event of war. Contemporary alliances provide for joint action by two or more independent states and are generally defensive and force allies to regroup when one or more of them are attacked by another state or coalition. Although alliances may be informal, they are generally formalized by an alliance treaty whose most critical clauses are those that define casus foederis or the circumstances under which the treaty obliges one ally to help another. The United Nations, under its authority, has established a system of international guardianship for the administration and surveillance of territories that may be located there through subsequent agreements. These areas are referred to as fiduciary territories. Suspicions of electoral interference have only made the situation worse. In the wake of allegations of Russian cyber interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, the federal government accused Russia of trying to break into its servers. Although no official statement has been made about interference in the 2017 federal elections, the Germans have joined Russia in cyberattacks and espionage.
In addition, German media have repeatedly criticized Russia for its military operation in Syria, including for its support for President Bashar al-Assad and for bombing his opponents` positions in densely populated areas of Aleppo and Eastern Ghouta. Art and science, maintain peaceful relations between nations, groups or individuals. On the other hand, Russia sees a direct link between the liberal democratic order and American hegemony, which Moscow more vigorously challenged in 2014. From a Russian point of view, a new world order will inevitably emerge in the future, based on a stable balance of power and interactions between several centers of power. But in fairness, Russia tends to be more concerned with its own place in the new world order than with what that order as a whole will be. The military sphere does not play the central role in this hybrid war, at least for the moment – competition in the information space is much more intense. Virtually all German media have adopted a critical attitude towards Moscow`s policy, although these publications are much more moderate than the CORPS PRESSE of the United States or the United Kingdom. The German media continue to cover Russia, its foreign policy and relations between the two countries. In fact, there are many ideas and approaches. Like Moscow`s relations with the West at large, Russia`s relations with Germany – its main European partner – have become increasingly strained in recent years.
So far, hopes of Russia`s integration into a larger Europe, from Lisbon in the West to Vladivostok in the east, have evaporated. The former cordial relations between Moscow and Berlin have cooled, as alienation and even mutual alienation have infiltrated. On February 11, 1940, Germany and the Soviet Union entered into a complex trade pact, more than four times the one signed by the two countries in August 1939.  The new trade pact helped Germany unblock the situation.  In the first year, Germany received one million tonnes of cereals, half a million tonnes of wheat, 900,000 tonnes of oil, 100,000 tonnes of cotton, 500,000 tonnes of phosphates and considerable quantities of other vital raw materials, as well as the transit of one million tonnes of Manchurian soybeans. This aid, along with others, passed through occupied Polish and Soviet territories.  The Soviets were to receive a navy cruiser, plans for the battleship Bismarck, heavy naval cannons, other naval equipment and 30 of the last German warplanes, including the fighter jets Bf 109 and Bf 110 and ju 88 bombers.  The Soviets also received oil and electrical equipment, locomotives, turbines, generators, diesel engines, ships, machine tools and samples of German artillery, tanks, explosives, chemical equipment and other objects.  Anc